Analysis of Journey to the End of the Night (novel) by Louis-Ferdinand

One essential principle of modernity is the steadfast belief in the idea of progress (technological, social, etc.). As such, time and history are typically understood as linear, with the historical past irrevocably behind us and a future that promises to be an improvement upon the past and present. Yet Bardamu’s pronouncements about time often contradict this notion, such as when he states “I was only twenty, and all I had was a past.” (80). How does Bardamu’s inability to conceive or visualize his future tie in with his larger critique of modernity?